stigmatize ['st?ɡm?ta?z] 

v. 诬蔑;玷污


A 74-year-old woman has given birth to twin girls in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, reviving several controversies around geriatric pregnancies.

The doctor who delivered the babies, Sankkayala Uma Shankar, told The Washington Post on Friday that the mother, Mangayamma Yaramati, provided a birth certificate showing that she is 74, though some news outlets have reported that she is 73.

Shankar, an IVF specialist, delivered the twins via Caesarean section and told The Post that the mother and the babies are doing well.

Yaramati and her 82-year-old husband, Sitarama Rajarao, said they had wanted children for years, and that they had been stigmatized in their village for being childless, BBC reported.

"We tried many times and saw numerous doctors," she said. "So this is the happiest time of my life."

"The [pregnancy] was smooth. There were no complications," Shankar told The Post. "She only had respiratory issues, but that was taken care of."

The twins were conceived through in vitro fertilization. Because Yaramati had experienced menopause, a donor's egg was fertilized with Rajarao's sperm before it was implanted in the new mother, doctors told the Hindustan Times.

Shannon Clark, a professor of maternal and fetal medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, said Yaramati's delivery is atypical but not surprising given the existing technology around assisted reproduction.

A woman's eggs deteriorate in quality and quantity over time, but her uterus "is not subject to the same age constraints," Clark explained. By turning to egg donors, as Yaramati did, women are able to carry babies at an advanced age.



stigmatize ['st?ɡm?ta?z] 

v. 诬蔑;玷污


He is likely to be stigmatized as an ex-con.


其名词原形是stigma,n. 耻辱;污名


There is still stigma attached to being an unmarried mother.